• June 21, 2024
  • Shatou, Changan, Dongguan, CN
wire cutting

Wire Cutting: Working Principle Characteristics and Applications

As a modern special processing method, WEDM has many advantages and good development prospects that traditional processing does not have.

Working principle of wire-cutting machine

The working principle of wire-cutting machines is based on the use of a pulsed power supply that sends out a series of pulsed voltages to the workpiece electrode and the molybdenum wire electrode. The molybdenum wire is sprayed with an insulating liquid between the wire and the workpiece. When the distance between the molybdenum wire and the workpiece is small to a certain extent, under the action of the pulse voltage, the working fluid is punctured, between the molybdenum wire and the workpiece to forming an instantaneous discharge channel, resulting in instantaneous high temperature, so that the metal is partially melted or even vaporized and etched down. If the table drives the workpiece to keep feeding, it can cut out the required shape.

Types of wire-cutting machines

EDM wire cutting machines according to the wire speed can be divided into high-speed reciprocating wire EDM wire cutting, low-speed unidirectional wire EDM wire cutting machines and vertical self-rotating EDM wire cutting machines in three categories.

Wire-cutting machine tool composition:

1, machine tool body (host)

2, numerical control device

3, pulse power supply

4, working fluid circulation system

CNC wire-cutting processing characteristics

(1) The processing object is not limited by hardness, can be used for general cutting methods are difficult to process or can not be processed metal materials and semiconductor materials, especially suitable for hardened tool steel, carbide and other high hardness material processing; but can not process non-metallic conductive materials.

(2) Can process the small, complex shape of the workpiece. Because the electrode wire diameter can be as small as 0.01mm, it can process narrow slits, sharp corners (small fillet radius) and other fine structures.

(3) Higher machining accuracy. Because the electrode wire is constantly moving, so the electrode wire wear is very small, and the current EDM precision has been able to reach the um level, surface roughness up to Ra0.05μm can fully meet the general requirements of precision parts processing.

(4) Users do not need to manufacture electrodes, saving electrode manufacturing time and electrode materials, and reducing processing costs.

(5) The working fluid is made of emulsion or deionized water instead of kerosene, which can save energy and prevent fire.

(6) Generally, a fine gauge is used for one-time processing and shaping, and it is mostly unnecessary to change the processing gauge in processing.

(7) The amount of workpiece material eroded is very small, which not only helps to improve the processing speed but also processed the material can be reused.

(8) Convenient to realize automation, the use of numerical control technology, as long as the program, can be automatically processed, easy to operate, short processing cycle, low cost, safer.

The application of CNC wire cutting

(1) Processing mold

Mold processing. By carbide hardened steel material processing of mold parts, samples, a variety of complex shapes of small parts and narrow grooves, etc., especially punching dies, extrusion molds, plastic molds and EDM cavity molds used in the processing of electrodes. For example, complex shapes, often with sharp corners and narrow slits of small concave mold holes can be used as a whole structure in the quenching process, both to ensure the accuracy of the mold, Wei can simplify the design and manufacture. Another example is the small and medium-sized punch mold, the past use of separate mold and curve grinding processing methods, and now change to use EDM wire cutting processing as a whole, so as to improve the accuracy of coordination, shorten the manufacturing cycle, and reduce costs.

(2) Trial production of new products

For trial production of new products, some key pieces often need mold manufacturing, but the processing mold cycle is long and high cost, the use of wire-cutting processing can be cut directly into parts, thereby reducing costs and shortening the trial production cycle of new products.

(3) Difficult to process parts

In the precision hole, sample plate and its molding tool and precision slots and other processing, the use of the mechanical machining method are very difficult, and the use of wire-cutting processing is more convenient. In addition, many of the EDM molding process used in the T with the telegraph (mostly made of copper, poor machinability) is also used in EDM wire cutting.

(4) rare, precious, super-hard metal materials processing.

As the wire-cutting process with the electrode, the wire size is much smaller than the size of the cutting tool (the thinnest electrode wire size up to 0 02mm), with which cutting of precious metals can reduce a lot of slit consumption, and therefore reduces the cost.


Wire EDM is a versatile and precise machining process that is widely used in aerospace and medical industries where tight tolerances need to be met. It can create complex shapes and geometries and is suitable for manufacturing prototypes or one-off parts.

Jmproto is a specialized manufacturer with in-depth knowledge of wire EDM and offers high-precision cutting services to meet the cutting needs of a wide range of electrically conductive materials, helping customers create quality products.

Problems that can occur in use

EDM wire cutting can cause some problems in use:
(1) Sudden breakage of the wire during the cutting process.
(2) Wire breakage when the workpiece is close to the end of the cutting.
(3) Systematic noise.
(4) The wire cylinder can not be opened.
(5) Silk cylinder does not change direction.
(6) Press the pump switch (or press the high-frequency switch) the machine stops completely.
(7) no high frequency.
(8) Manual go automatic does not go.

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