• June 21, 2024
  • Shatou, Changan, Dongguan, CN
Types of springs

Types of springs and their applications

Spring is a type of elastic metal product that is common in various fields of our life. It comes in a variety of types and applications, ranging from household appliances to the automotive industry, construction, and medical equipment. In the following, we will discuss some of the common spring types and their application areas.

Different types of springs and their characteristics

A variety of spring types are available, the choice of which depends on the force or torque required for the application and the operating conditions. The most common spring types include:

1. Compression spring

A compression spring is a common elastic element. Its working principle is to use the material’s elastic recovery ability to produce strain under external force. When the external force disappears, the spring will return to its original shape, storing and releasing energy.

Compression springs are generally made of metal materials, such as steel and stainless steel. Their shape can be spiral, cylindrical, conical, etc., depending on specific application requirements.

Compression springs usually consist of one or more coils or helical coils, exhibiting a certain degree of stiffness and elasticity. When external force is applied to the spring, the spring compresses, generating strain, and the distance between molecules inside the spring becomes smaller, allowing the spring to store elastic force. When the external force is removed, the elastic force returns the spring to its original shape, releasing the stored energy.

Compression springs are widely used in machinery, automobiles, home appliances and other fields. Mechanical engineering often employs compression springs for shock absorption, buffering, support and transmission. In the automotive field, compression springs are used in suspension, braking systems, seats, etc. In the home appliance field, compression springs can be used in doors, windows, warehouses, electrical appliances, etc.

2. Torsion spring

A torsion spring is a mechanical device that can store and release elastic potential energy. It is typically constructed of wire or a metal rod in a spiral shape. When a torsion force is applied to the spring, it twists and deforms, storing elastic potential energy. Once the torsion force is relieved, the spring returns to its original shape and releases the stored energy.

Torsion springs are frequently used in various mechanical devices to provide constant force and torque. They are employed in applications such as cranes, vehicle suspension systems, clocks, and more.

The stiffness of a torsion spring can be adjusted to alter its capacity to store and release elastic potential energy. By modifying the spring material, diameter, pitch, and other characteristics, its stiffness can be modified. Stiffer springs store more elastic potential energy and require more force to deform, while softer springs store less elastic potential energy and demand less force to deform.

3. Spiral spring

A coil spring is a prevalent mechanical spring made of wire and has a helical shape. Coil springs are typically used in various mechanical devices like suspension systems, shock absorption systems, motorcycle shock absorbers, automatic doors, etc.

Coil springs work by using elastic deformation to store and release energy. When an external force acts on the coil spring, it deforms elastically, causing the spring to rotate or elongate about its axis. Once the external force disappears, the spring will release the stored energy through its elastic force, returning to its original shape and length.

4. Tension spring

A tension spring refers to a spring that is originally in an elastic equilibrium state and is stretched along its axis under the action of an external force. When the external force ceases, the spring returns to its original shape and length.

The mechanical properties of an extension spring can be described using Hooke’s law. According to this law, the deformation of a spring (tension or compression) is proportional to the force it receives. Specifically, the stress of the tension spring (that is, the force per unit area) is proportional to the deformation (that is, the displacement per unit length), and the proportional coefficient is the spring constant (also called the elastic coefficient or stiffness coefficient).

The mechanical properties of an extension spring can be quantified by the spring stiffness, which depends on the material and geometry of the spring. The greater the spring stiffness, the greater the force corresponding to the deformation of the spring. Therefore, a tension spring needs to apply greater tension to produce the same deformation.

Tension springs are widely used in various mechanical systems, such as spring scales, automotive shock absorbers, and industrial machinery. Their design and selection must take into account factors such as working load, preload, and durability to ensure the stability and reliability of the spring in the working environment.

5. Wave spring

A wave spring is a specially-shaped spring. Its shape is not a simple straight line or spiral, but presents a wavy or wave shape. Wave springs are usually made from a strip of steel with multiple wavy protrusions that alternate to form the corrugations.

The wave design of the wave spring enables it to have better elasticity and cushioning capacity. When an external force acts on the wave spring, the corrugations of the wave spring can squeeze or stretch each other, thereby absorbing the impact of the external force and generating a certain elastic reaction force. This makes wave springs very effective in applications such as shock absorption, cushioning, and vibration isolation.

Wave springs are widely used in many fields, including automotive, home appliances, aerospace, mechanical engineering, etc. They can be used in vehicle suspension systems, shock absorption systems for industrial machinery, and vibration isolation systems for electronic equipment. Wave springs provide better shock absorption and longer life in such applications.

6. Flat spring

A flat spring is an elastic component made of a flat-shaped metal strip. It has elastic deformation capabilities such as bending, torsion, and bending, which can be useful to absorb and store energy, as well as provide damping and stabilizing forces.

Flat springs are typically made of highly elastic materials such as spring steel, carbon steel, or stainless steel. They can be designed and manufactured based on the required strength and modulus of elasticity.

Flat springs are used in an extensive range of applications, such as machinery, automotive, aerospace, home appliances, and more. Some common applications include suspension systems, braking systems, pressure sensors, instrumentation, and electronics, among others.

7. Gas spring

A gas spring, also known as a gas spring buffer, is a device that uses gas pressure to provide elastic force. It consists of a sealed container filled with gas.

The working principle of the gas spring is to provide elastic force through the pressure of the gas, to absorb shock and vibration. When an external force acts on the gas spring, the gas will compress, which generates a reactive force, causing the gas spring to elastic deform and absorb energy through shock absorption and buffering.

Gas springs are widely used in industrial machinery, vehicle suspension systems, aerospace, and other fields for shock absorption, cushioning, and support. For example, in automobile suspension systems, gas springs automatically adjust the suspension height and stiffness according to the load change, providing a comfortable driving experience.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Springs

Advantages of springs:

1. Highly elastic: Springs are highly elastic and able to withstand large amounts of deformation without permanent deformation or failure.

2. Load distribution: The spring can evenly distribute the load to the whole spring, reducing the pressure on a single part and improving the life of the spring.

3. Store and release energy: Springs can store energy and release it when needed, such as wind-up clocks, spring latches, etc.

4. Shock absorption and cushioning: Springs can absorb and reduce shocks and vibrations, such as the springs in car shock absorbers.

5. Adjustment function: By adjusting the material, diameter, length and design of the spring, its elasticity, stiffness and load capacity can be adjusted.

Disadvantages of spring:

1. Lots of noise: In some cases, the spring may make a squeaking sound or noise, such as when compressing or extending.

2. Affected by the environment: The performance of the spring may be affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and corrosion.

3. Limited space: Springs generally require a certain amount of space to work, which may limit their use in certain applications.

4. Restricted shape: Due to the specific shape and structure of the spring, its application may be subject to certain restrictions, such as the spring cannot adapt to complex shape and size requirements.

5. Weight limitations: Some springs can be heavy, which can be a disadvantage for some lightweight applications.

Materials commonly used to make springs include:

1. Steel: A commonly used spring material with excellent elasticity, fatigue resistance and corrosion resistance, suitable for most spring applications.

2. Titanium alloy: light weight, high strength, corrosion resistance, suitable for aerospace and other fields that require high weight and strength.

3. Copper alloy: It has good electrical and thermal conductivity, and is suitable for the fields of electronic devices and power equipment.

4. Nickel alloy: It has good corrosion resistance and high temperature performance, and is suitable for fields such as chemical industry and aviation that require materials to be resistant to corrosion and high temperature environments.

5. Stainless steel: Excellent corrosion resistance, suitable for the application of springs in humid environment, chemical industry and other fields.

6. Alloy steel: Improve the strength, hardness and corrosion resistance of the spring by adding alloying elements.

7. Silicon steel: It has the characteristics of low magnetic permeability, low magnetic loss and high toughness, and is suitable for springs manufactured in the fields of motors and transformers.

Spring Applications and Industries

A spring is a part made of elastic metal wire or elastic material, which has a wide range of applications and has different applications in various industries.

1. Mechanical engineering: Springs are widely used in the field of mechanical engineering, such as spring shock absorbers, spring suspension systems, spring transmission systems, etc. Springs can provide vibration and shock mitigation and control by absorbing and releasing energy.

2. Automobile industry: There are many different types of spring applications in automobiles, such as suspension springs, engine valve springs, brake springs, etc. These springs can provide vehicle stability, comfort and safety.

3. Electronic products: Springs are also commonly used in electronic products, such as electronic sockets, battery connectors, button springs, etc. These springs can provide connection and support functions.

4. Furniture manufacturing: There are many places where springs are used in furniture manufacturing, such as spring mattresses, spring chair backs, spring door clips, etc. These springs provide comfortable support and shock absorption.

5. Construction industry: In the construction industry, springs are often used in mechanical devices such as doors, windows, rolling doors, and elevators. Springs can provide balance, support and function of critical components.

6. Medical equipment: In medical equipment, springs also have some applications, such as surgical instruments, orthopedic instruments, rehabilitation devices, etc. Springs can provide the right amount of elasticity and strength to meet specific medical needs.

Spring Notes

A spring is a common elastic object used in various mechanical equipment and tools. Here are some things to keep in mind when using springs:

1. Avoid overloading: the spring has a rated load limit, and exceeding the rated load will cause the spring to deform, damage or lose its elastic function. When selecting and using springs, make sure that the load does not exceed its rated load.

2. Avoid excessive stretching or compression: Excessive stretching or compression of the spring may cause permanent deformation or rupture. When using a spring, avoid exceeding its design extension or compression limit.

3. Avoid Bending: Springs are primarily designed to stretch or compress, not bend. Excessive bending of the spring may result in cracking or loss of elasticity.

4. Pay attention to the storage and maintenance of the spring: the spring should be stored in a dry place without corrosive gas, and avoid direct contact with moisture, chemicals or corrosive substances. Check and maintain the spring regularly, and replace it in time if it is damaged or deformed.

5. Pay attention to safe operation: When handling the spring, try to avoid sudden release or loss of control to avoid accidental injury. Use proper protective equipment, such as gloves and eyes, to prevent sudden disengagement or ejection of the spring.

6. Select the appropriate spring type: According to the specific needs and applications, select the appropriate spring type, such as compression spring, extension spring or torsion spring. Make sure that the size, material and elastic properties of the spring meet the required requirements.

7. Do not change the construction of the spring or weaken its elasticity: Any structural or design changes to the spring may affect its elastic performance and safety. In the event that a spring modification is required, consult a professional or supplier for advice.


Overall, a spring is a type of elastic metal product that is widely used in various fields. Compression springs, tension springs, and torsion springs are common types that are used in a wide variety of applications, such as engineering, the automotive industry, construction, and medical equipment. The functions and properties of springs make them indispensable components in many devices and systems.

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