• June 21, 2024
  • Shatou, Changan, Dongguan, CN
plasma cutting

Plasma cutting principle and characteristics?

Plasma cutting is a thermal method of cutting metal that can be cost-effective, cut a wider area, with high accuracy and repeatability, and is widely used for cutting thick metal plates and sheet metal.

How Plasma Cutting Works

1. Ionization

The gas (usually oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) is ionized by a high-voltage electric field or a high-energy electron beam to generate plasma.

2. Excitation

The ions, electrons, and neutral particles in the plasma are excited by the electric field to produce a high-energy state, which is characterized by high temperature, high-speed movement, and high concentration.

3. Reaction

The ions and molecules in the plasma interact with each other, and various reactions, such as chemical reactions and physical reactions, release a large amount of energy and free radicals.

4. Cutting material

Due to the high energy of the plasma, it can break the bonds of material molecules and allow the material to be cut.

Through the above process, plasma cutting can achieve efficient, precise and non-destructive cutting of various materials.

Plasma Cutting Features

1. Fast cutting speed

Plasma cutting uses high-energy plasma to cut materials, which is fast and efficient.

2. Good cutting quality

The cutting edge of plasma cutting is flat, without burrs, the incision is smooth, and it is not easy to be deformed by overheating.

3. Wide range of cutting materials

Plasma cutting can be used to cut metal, non-metal, alloy and other materials.

4. Large cutting thickness

Plasma cutting has a large cutting thickness, which can cut materials as thick as tens of millimeters or even hundreds of millimeters.

5. Small cutting area

The cutting area of plasma cutting is small, which can be cut in a narrow space.

6. Simple operation

The operation of plasma cutting is relatively simple, does not require particularly complicated operation skills, and does not require a lot of equipment.

7. No noise and no pollution

Plasma cutting has no mechanical cutting noise and release of volatile toxic substances such as gasoline, and has no pollution to the environment.

Plasma cutting material

Plasma cutting materials are suitable for a variety of metal materials, including steel, copper, aluminum, stainless steel, etc. Among them, stainless steel is one of the most commonly used materials for plasma cutting, because stainless steel has high hardness and is difficult to cut. In addition, plasma cutting can also be used to process some non-metallic materials, such as graphite, ceramics, glass, etc. Among these materials, graphite is the most suitable material for plasma cutting because of its high melting point and low volatility.

Advantages of Plasma Cutting

1. High safety

Since the plasma does not touch the material to be cut, the surface of the material will not be damaged during cutting, nor will it cause debris and sparks, thereby improving safety.

2. Fast cutting speed

Plasma cutting is a high-speed cutting technology, and the cutting speed is generally several times faster than traditional mechanical cutting technology. This can greatly shorten the cutting time and improve work efficiency.

3. High cutting precision

Plasma cutting has the characteristics of high precision, and can cut various materials very precisely. Since plasma cutting requires little energy and heat, it does not cause deformation of the material.

4. Wide cutting range

Plasma cutting can cut various materials, such as metal, plastic, wood and glass. Its cutting thickness range is also wide, ranging from a few millimeters to tens of millimeters.

5. Environmentally friendly

Plasma cutting will not produce harmful waste gas and waste water, nor will it produce too much waste, so it can be said to be an environmentally friendly processing method.

Disadvantages of plasma cutting

1. High cost

The relatively high cost of equipment and energy used in plasma cutting makes it not suitable for some low-cost demand fields.

2. Generate gas and waste

During the plasma cutting process, gases (such as oxygen, argon, etc.) are needed to excite the plasma, and the generated waste needs to be processed, which will increase environmental protection and processing costs.

3. Slow cutting speed

The plasma cutting speed is relatively slow, which cannot meet some high-efficiency production requirements.

4. Limited cutting precision

Plasma cutting precision is relatively low, and may not be suitable in some fields that require high precision.

5. Potential safety hazard

The plasma and high-temperature gas generated during the plasma cutting process will cause harm to the operator’s body. Operators must wear protective equipment to operate, which increases operating costs and safety hazards.

Conclusion

Plasma cutting is an advanced process for cutting conductive metals, offering advantages such as high productivity, versatility, precision and surface quality. This technology has been widely used in petroleum, shipbuilding, machinery and other industries, and can process materials of various thicknesses and hardnesses with high speed, high efficiency and high precision.

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