• June 21, 2024
  • Shatou, Changan, Dongguan, CN
Grinding process

Grinding process guide

Grinding is the process of dressing and processing workpieces by means of grinding tools. During the grinding process, abrasive particles are used to rub against the surface of the workpiece to produce cutting action, thus eliminating the raised parts on the surface of the workpiece and obtaining the required precision and surface quality.

By studying this article, you can master the characteristics of grinding processing, understand the main types and characteristics of abrasive tools, and effectively select grinding methods and abrasive tools based on the requirements of the workpiece’s shape, material, and precision.

Key points and difficulties: Selection of abrasive tools, types and characteristics of common grinding processes.

Grinding characteristics

1. The machining allowance is small and the machining accuracy is high.

General grinding can obtain IT5~7 grade precision, surface roughness can reach Ra0.2~1.6um°

2. Wide range of grinding processing

Various surfaces: inner and outer circular surfaces, conical surfaces, flat surfaces, tooth surfaces, helical surfaces.

Various materials: ordinary plastic materials, brittle materials such as castings, hardened steel, cemented carbide, gemstones and other high-hardness difficult-to-cut materials.

3. The grinding speed is high, the energy consumption is high, the cutting efficiency is low, the grinding temperature is high, and the surface of the workpiece is prone to defects such as burns and residual stress.

4. The grinding wheel has a certain self-sharpness.

Type of grinding process

Grinding process types can be divided into the following categories:

1. Surface grinding:

Surface grinding is the process of grinding a flat workpiece to make its surface smooth, fine and machined to precise size and shape.

2. Cylindrical grinding:

Cylindrical grinding is to place a cylindrical workpiece on a grinding machine, and through the grinding operation, the outer surface of the cylindrical workpiece reaches precise size and shape.

3. Internal grinding:

Internal grinding is to place the workpiece with an internal hole on the grinding machine, and through the grinding operation, the surface of the internal hole can reach a precise size and shape.

4. Surface grinding:

Surface grinding is a grinding operation on the surface of a workpiece to improve the smoothness and finish of the surface.

5. Center grinding:

Center grinding is to place the center hole workpiece on the grinding machine, and make the center hole reach the precise size and shape through the grinding operation.

6. Flat grinding:

Flat grinding is a grinding operation on a workpiece with a plane gap, which is used to eliminate the gap and improve the precision of the plane.

7. Surface Grinding:

Surface grinding is a grinding operation on a curved surface workpiece to achieve precise size and shape of the surface.

8. OD Grinding:

OD grinding is the grinding operation on the outer diameter of the workpiece to achieve precise size and shape.

9. Inner diameter grinding:

Inner diameter grinding is a grinding operation on the inner diameter of the workpiece to achieve precise size and shape.

10. Plane Cylindrical Grinding:

Plane Cylindrical Grinding is a simultaneous grinding operation on the plane and outer circle of the workpiece, which is used to achieve precise size and shape of the plane and outer circle of the workpiece.

These grinding process types have different application scenarios and characteristics, and the appropriate grinding process type can be selected for processing according to specific workpiece requirements.

Types of abrasive tools and their selection

1. Type of grinding tool

  • Ordinary abrasives: Abrasives made of corundum, silicon carbide, and boron carbide abrasives.
  • Superhard Abrasives: Abrasives made of high hardness abrasives such as diamond and cubic boron nitride.
  • Consolidated abrasive tools: grinding wheel, oil stone, sand tile, grinding head, polishing block.
  • Coated abrasives: emery cloth, sandpaper, abrasive belt.
  • Abrasive paste: A polishing compound consisting of abrasives and abrasive polishing fluids.

2. Selection of abrasive tools

The selection of abrasive tools needs to be comprehensively considered according to specific processing requirements and material characteristics. Here are a few common types of abrasives and where they are used:

Ordinary grinding tools:

Suitable for fine grinding of general materials, such as metal, plastic, ceramics, etc. When choosing, the hardness of the abrasive tool and the surface treatment requirements of the material should be considered.

Superhard abrasives:

Such as diamond, cubic boron nitride (CBN), etc., suitable for grinding materials with high hardness and high thermal conductivity, such as cemented carbide, ceramics, thermal spray coatings, etc. It is characterized by high wear resistance, high thermal stability and high cutting efficiency.

Bonded abrasives:

When selecting abrasive tools, factors such as workpiece shape, material, precision requirements, grinding efficiency and surface quality need to be considered to select the most suitable abrasive tools.

Coated abrasives:

Substrates coated with a layer of abrasive particles, suitable for precision grinding of high hardness and brittle materials, such as sapphire, quartz, optical glass, etc. It is characterized by high precision and good surface quality.

Abrasive paste:

A sticky, abrasive material is suitable for polishing or repairing the surface of a workpiece. It can achieve a high surface quality and is commonly used in optics, electronics, aviation, and other fields.

Summarize

When selecting abrasive tools, factors such as workpiece shape, material, precision requirements, grinding efficiency, and surface quality need to be considered to choose the most appropriate abrasive tools.

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